Nail (engineering)

From Academic Kids

Missing image
Nail_(engineering).jpg
A pile of nails
This article is about nails as used in engineering. See Nail for other uses of the word.

In engineering, woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped, sharp object of hard metal, typically steel, used to fasten things together (usually wood).

It is driven into the workpiece by a hammer or an electrically, compressed air or small explosive charge driven nail gun. A nail holds materials together by shear strength or friction. In some other cases the point of the nail may be bent over or clinched to prevent it from pulling out.

Nails are made in a great variety of forms for specialized purposes; the common everyday kind of nail is sometimes called a "wire nail" to distinguish it from nails in general. Some kinds of nails are referred to by other words, for example "pins", "tacks" or "brads".

Contents

History

Manufactured cut nails were first introduced in the United States in the late 1700s. Before that time, nails were hand-forged. Cut nails are machine-cut from flat sheets of steel. They are also called square nails because of their square appearance. Though still manufactured for historical renovations, cut nails have largely been replaced by mass-produced wire nails.

Types of nail

Types of nail include:

  • veneer pin
  • panel pin
  • wire nail
  • oval brad
  • masonry nail
  • carpet tack
  • brass tack (for getting down to)
  • roofing tack
  • corrugated nail
  • lost-head nail
  • double-ended nail
  • square nail
  • Clouts

Nail sizes

Nails are usually sold by weight (either in bulk or in boxes). In the United States of America, the length of a nail is designated by its penny size. It is believed that the origin of the term "penny" in relation to nail size is based on the old custom in England of selling nails by the hundred. A hundred nails that sold for sixpence were "six penny" nails. The larger the nail, the more a hundred nails would cost. Thus the larger nails have a larger number for its penny size. The penny size is written with a number and the abbreviation d for penny (e.g. - 10d). D is an abbreviation for denarius, a Roman coin similar to a penny; this was the abbreviation for a penny in the UK before decimalisation. A smaller number indicates a shorter nail and a larger number indicates a longer nail. Nails under 1-1/4 in., often called brads, are sold mostly in small packages with only a length designation (e.g. 1/2" (12 mm), 1-1/8" (28 mm), etc.).

In other English-speaking countries and the rest of the world, including Canada, nails are designated by type and length (not by penny) in rounded millimetres. For example, a nail with a size designation written as "50 x 3,0" would have a meaning of 50 mm in length and 3 mm in diameter.

Length of Nails by Penny Size

  • 3d - 1-1/4" (~30 mm)
  • 4d - 1-1/2 (~40 mm)
  • 6d - 2" (~50 mm)
  • 8d - 2-1/2" (~65 mm)
  • 10d - 3" (~75 mm)
  • 12d - 3-1/4" (~80 mm)
  • 16d - 3-1/2" (~90 mm)
  • 20d - 4" (~100 mm)
  • 40d - 5" (~125 mm)
  • 60d - 6" (~150 mm)

Nail terminology

  • Box - a wire nail with a head; box nails are smaller in diameter than common nails
  • Bright - normal surface finish; not recommended for weather exposure
  • Casing - a wire nail with a slightly larger head than finish nails; often used for flooring
  • CC - "cement coated"; nail coated with adhesive for greater holding power
  • Common - a common construction wire nail with a head: common nails are larger in diameter than box nails
  • Finish - a wire nail that does not have a "head"; can be easily concealed
  • Galvanized - treated for resistance to corrosion and/or weather exposure
  • Head - round flat metal piece fixated to the top of the nail; for increased holding power
  • Length - distance from the head to the point of a nail
  • Point - sharpened end opposite the "head"; for greater ease in driving
  • Shank - the body the length of the nail between the head and the point; may be smooth, or may have rings or spirals for greater holding power
  • Spikes - large nails (usually over 4" - 100 mm) are called spikes

External link

de:Nagel fr:Clou eo:Najlo nl:Draadnagel ja:釘 pl:Gwóźdź fi:Naula sl:ebelj sv:Spik sr:Ексер

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